Unit 25 Fossil fuels

Acid rain

Acid rain - acidic rain water that can cause harmful effect to the environment

Aliphatic hydrocarbon

Aliphatic hydrocarbon - hydrocarbons that do not contain a benzene ring


Alkane - hydrocarbons that are only linear or branched aliphatic  and do not contain double bond or triple bond

Aromatic hydrocarbon

Aromatic hydrocarbon - hydrocarbons that contain a benzene ring


Benzene - a hydrocarbon that contains a ring of six carbon atoms with alternating double and single bonds and six attached hydrogen atoms


Bitumen - fraction that is stickly, black and highly viscous liquid

Catalytic coverter

Catalytic coverter - device that is used to control the emission of air pollutants emitted from car engine


Coal - a kind of combustible black / dark brown solid


Cycloalkane - hydrocarbons that are cyclic and do not contain double bond or triple bond

Desulphurization system

Desulphurization system - device that is used to remove sulphur dioxide emitted from power plants

Diesel oil

Diesel oil - fraction that contains liquid fuel used in diesel engines

Endothermic reaction

Endothermic reaction - a reaction in which heat is taken in

Exothermic reaction

Exothermic reaction - a reaction in which heat is released

Fossil fuel

Fossil fuel - formed from the remains of plants and animals


Fraction - mixtures of hydrocarbons with boiling points within certain ranges

Fractional distillation

Fractional distillation - a process that separates mixture of hydrocarbons with different boiling points into groups 

Fuel oil

Fuel oil - fraction that is burnt for the generation of heat

Greenhouse effect

Greenhouse effect - the phenomenon that some of the infrared energy (heat) being trapped by greenhouse gases which act like the glass of a greenhouse, causing the Earth to become warmer

Greenhouse gas

Greenhouse gas - gases that can trap infrared energy coming from the sun such as carbon dioxide and water vapour


Hydrocarbon - compounds that contain only atoms of carbon and hydrogen


Incinerator - facility that is used to burn trash and othher waste until it is reduced to ash

Infrared radiation

Infrared radiation - invisible electromagnetic wave that has longer wavelength than visible light


Kerosene - fraction that contains combustible liquid used as fuels in jet engines

Lubricating oil

Lubricating oil - fraction that is used to reduce friction between moving surface


Naphtha - fraction that contains the lightest and most volatile fractions of liquid hydrocarbons

Natural gas

Natural gas - a mixture of combustible gases

Particulate removal device

Particulate removal device - device that is used to remove particulates


Petrochemical - compounds produced from petroleum or natural gas

Petrochemical industry

Petrochemical industry - industry that produce compounds from petroleum or natural gas


Petrol - fraction that contains transparent liquid used as fuels in engines


Petroleum - a mixture of hydrocarbons which is a dark, sticky liquid and difficult to burn

Photochemical smog

Photochemical smog - formed from the reaction between sunlight and oxides of nitrogen that is a type of air pollutant


Polymer - compounds that consist of very large molecules formed by joining together many small molecules repeatedly

Refinery gas

Refinery gas - fraction that contains mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as fuels

Respirable suspended particulate

Respirable suspended particulate - suspended particulates that are too small to be filtered by airs in the nose


Scrubber - device that is used to remove particulates or other gases emitted from industrial exhaust stream

Suspended particulate

Suspended particulate - incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons produces dark smoke that contains mainly carbon particles 


Viscosity - measure of the resistance of liquid to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile strength

Volatile organic compound

Volatile organic compound - unburnt hydrocarbons that are easily evaporated


Wax - fraction that is a white or colourless soft solid

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